Campylobacter jejuni- A gram negative bacteria

Campylobacter is a gram negative curved shaped rod bacteria. It has polar flagella. It is microaerophilic, which means it grows in limited presence of oxygen (5%). It is oxidase positive. It grows in hot environment i.e at 42°C, so it is thermogenic. The medium where it grows is called skirrow agar. Skirrow campylobacter selective agar…

India’s 72nd Independence Day

Today is our 72nd Independence Day. Our country has come a long way. The land which was once under the brutal rule of the British Empire for more than 200 years, today we as a nation has marked our great presence on the world map. Our country’s independence was not a simple task. It was…

SYPHILIS

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease, caused by an infection of bacteria known as Trepenoma pallidium. It is spread by sexual contact. A pregnant mother can infect its fetus. Infected part of penis which cannot be covered by condom , on contact with partner can infect her. Kissing with sores in mouth can infect the…

Appendicitis

Inflammation of appendix is called appendicitis. CAUSE: It occurs due to blockage of appendix often caused by stool, foreign body or cancer . Blockage cause infection and so it swells up. SYMPTOMS: Pain near navel or upper abdomen then moves to lower abdomen Nausea or vomiting soon after pain Fever (99-110 degree) Inability to pass…

SECONDARY ALDOSTERONISM

Secondary aldosteronism is caused by reduced renal blood flow, which stimulates the renin-angiotensin mechanism with resultant hypersecretion of aldosterone. Causes of reduced renal blood flow include Obstructive renal artery disease (eg, atheroma, stenosis) Renal vasoconstriction (as occurs in accelerated hypertension) Edematous disorders (eg, heart failure, cirrhosis with ascites, nephrotic syndrome) Secretion may be normal in heart failure, but hepatic blood flow…

CONN’S SYNDROME

Primary aldosteronism, also sometimes called Conn syndrome, is an endocrine disorder characterized by excessive secretion of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal glands. This overproduction leads to the retention of sodium and loss of potassium in the body, resulting in high blood pressure (hypertension). SIGN AND SYMPTOMS Increased thirst Weakness Fatigue Temporary paralysis Visual disturbances Palpitations Headaches Muscle cramps,…

CUSHING DISEASE

Cushing disease is a condition in which the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). CAUSE : Cushing disease is caused by a tumor or excess growth (hyperplasia) of the pituitary gland SYMPTOMS Obesity (above waist) Moon face Slow growth rate in children Acne or skin infections Purple stretch marks (abdominal straie) Bruising of skin Backache…

ADDISON’S DISEASE

Addison’s disease is a disorder that occurs when your body produces insufficient amounts of certain hormones produced by your adrenal glands. SYMPTOMS Extreme fatigue Weight loss and decreased appetite Darkening of your skin (hyperpigmentation) Low blood pressure, even fainting Salt craving Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Nausea, diarrhea or vomiting Abdominal pain Muscle or joint pains…

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis is a condition when the immune system attacks the protective sheath i.e myelin sheath that insulates the axon of neuron. This is auto immune disorder. It isn’t clear why MS develop in some people and not others. MS occurs due to degeneration of myelin sheath of neuron and it affects brain and spinal…

Guillain Barre Syndrome

Guillain Barre Syndrome is an auto immune disorder. This is rare (1 in 100,000 american) but serious disorder in which the immune system attacks the healthy nerve cells of the peripheral nervous system. The cause of this disease is unknown but thought to be triggered by infectious illness such as stomach flu or lung infection….